Causes of infertility in women
In order to accommodate normal fertilization is necessary:
1. Of ovaries in a way of ovulation to release mature egg;
2. The mature egg from the ovary into the fallopian tube to pass before it came in touch with the sperm;
3. Part of the sperm through the uterus to reach the fallopian tube and one of them to fertilize the egg;
4. The fertilized egg through the fallopian tube to travel to the uterus and “embed” in the endometrium (lining of the uterus).
Inability of a couple to conceive after at least 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse with normal frequency is called infertility. The term infertility should be distinguished from the term infertility. Infertility is the inability of conception (fertilization) and infertility means the inability pregnancy to hold to the end, or until the child be able to live. This means that infertile woman is capable of conception, but sooner or later in the pregnancy comes to abortion.
We distinguish two types of infertility:
Primary sterility – when is not achieved fertilization.
Secondary infertility – before infertility, it is preceded by at least one fertilization.
There are many reasons that may impede any stage of the process of conception. They also stem from the husband and the wife.One third of cases the cause of infertility is with woman in another third problem is with men, and among the rest, the cause is either unknown or the problem is in both partners.
The most common causes of infertility in women include:
1. Damage to the fallopian tubes. If damage or obstruction of the fallopian tubes, then disables the sperm travel to the egg. Most often, it is due to:
-Pelvic inflammatory disease. It is an inflammation of the female reproductive organs that result e of infection usually caused by sexually transmitted bacteria (Chlamydia, Gonorrhea).
-Surgery pelvis or abdomen. If the operations were conducted in the area of the pelvis and abdomen, especially due to ectopic pregnancy, there is a possibility of scarring formed damage or obstruction of the fallopian tubes.
-Pelvic tuberculosis. Although there is often a disease, it can cause damage to the fallopian tubes.
2. Hormonal disorders. Synchronized hormonal changes that normally occur in one menstrual cycle, allowing the ripening and release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation) and prepare the endometrium to “receive” in case a fertilized egg occur. Ovulation problems can result in distortion at the hypothalamus, pituitary or ovary. Usually, hormonal disorders are due to:
-Polycystic ovary syndrome. One of the most common causes of infertility in women is polycystic ovary syndrome. Hormonal disorders that occur in this syndrome, affect the process of ovulation and hamper or impede the process of conception.
-Premature ovarian failure. This condition is characterized by loss of the ability for production of eggs from the ovary (failure of oocytes), and reduced production of estrogen in women under 40 years of age. Reasons for this disease can be genetic factors, chemotherapy, and other autoimmune diseases.
-Dysfunction of the hypothalamus or pituitary. Ovulation depends on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, ie hormones that secrete these glands. Excessive increased or decreased body weight, excessive physical or emotional stress, as well as dramatic fluctuations in body weight are just some of the reasons that could lead to disruption of the axis hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian, and thus disruption of ovulation. The main sign of problems with ovulation is irregular menstrual bleeding or no bleeding, although in some cases there is a possibility of the regular menstrual cycle, ovulation absent.
-Hyperprolactinemia. Prolactin is a hormone that the pituitary excreted. Increased level of prolactin (hyperprolactinaemia) reduces secretion of estrogens which can be the cause of infertility.
-Hypothyroidism (decreased thyroid function). The reduced amount of thyroid hormones stimulate increased TRH releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, which might cause hyperprolactinaemia, thus lowering estorgeni and subsequent disruption of the process of ovulation.
3. Endometriosis. Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium (tissue that has coated the interior of the uterus) is localized ectopic or no endometrial tissue outside the uterine inner surface. Frequently, ectopic localization is ovarian (about 50%). Endometriosis can disturb the process of conception and be a cause of infertility. Obstruction of the fallopian tube for creating a scar of a previous surgery to remove the endometrial tissue, changing the lining of the uterus and preventing implantation of the fertilized ovum and damage to sperm or egg are just some of the problems caused by endometriosis that can be a cause of infertility.
4. Disorders of the body and cervix. There are several disorders level uterus, which may adversely affect the process of conception and implantation. Most often it is:
-Benign or malignant tumors. The presence of fibroids, uterine or other tumors in the uterus may cause obstruction of the fallopian tubes, or to prevent implantation of an already fertilized egg.
-Cervical stenosis. It’s about narrowing of the cervix, which may be due to damage to the cervix or due to genetic factors. Cervical stenosis can disrupt the process of conception, since the narrowing of the cervical canal may impede the passage of sperm to the body of the uterus.
-Changes in cervical mucus. In certain cases (infection, previous surgery) can lead to changing the quality of the mucus and thus prevent the passage of sperm from the cervix to the body of the uterus.
5. Anatomic congenital abnormalities of the female reproductive system. In rare cases, congenital abnormalities of any part of the female reproductive system (ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina) can be a cause of infertility.
Unfortunately, about 20% of cases infertility are unknown. In such a case, it is considered likely fertility is due to the impact of several factors arising from both partners.
It requires a serious approach in already declared infertility, because determining the etiological factors and proper treatment, you can get the desired results.